Question: How Does Rheumatic Fever Affect The Heart Valves?

What antibiotics treat rheumatic fever?

The mainstay antibiotic is IM benzathine benzylpenicillin.

Oral phenoxymethylpenicillin and erythromycin are also used as alternatives.

These three antibiotics, in the required dosage forms are on the current EMLc.

No additional antibiotic agents have been identified to date..

What food should not to eat if you have rheumatic heart disease?

Red meat (beef, pork and lamb) is high in saturated fat and cholesterol, which increases your risk for heart disease….Foods to AvoidCrackers.Doughnuts.Baked goods (cakes, cookies and pie crust)Fried foods.Non-dairy creamer.Microwave popcorn.

How often does strep throat lead to rheumatic fever?

About three people out of every 10 who have a strep throat infection develop rheumatic fever. One common and potentially dangerous effect of rheumatic fever is damage to the valves of the heart. No single test can confirm a diagnosis of rheumatic fever.

What valves are most often affected in rheumatic fever?

In chronic rheumatic heart disease, the mitral valve alone is the most commonly affected valve in an estimated 50 to 60% of cases. Combined lesions of both the aortic and mitral valves occur in 20% of cases.

What are the complications of rheumatic fever?

What complications are associated with rheumatic fever?Aortic valve stenosis. This is a narrowing of the aortic valve in the heart.Aortic regurgitation. This is a leak in the aortic valve that causes blood to flow in the wrong direction.Heart muscle damage. … Atrial fibrillation. … Heart failure.

What are the long term effects of rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic fever can cause permanent damage to the heart, including damaged heart valves and heart failure. Treatments can reduce damage from inflammation, lessen pain and other symptoms, and prevent the recurrence of rheumatic fever.

How does rheumatic fever affect the brain?

In many cases of patients who had rheumatic fever–at times undiagnosed–there is a chronic involvement of the brain as a result of disseminated recurrent obliterating arteritis or emboli in the small blood vessels, especially in the brain membranes or the cortex.

Why Rheumatic fever is an autoimmune disease?

Rheumatic fever is classed as an autoimmune disease because the inflammation is probably caused by the immune system’s reaction to the bacteria. While rheumatic fever can develop at any age, children between five and 14 years are at increased risk.

What type of hypersensitivity is rheumatic fever?

It is believed to be caused by antibody cross-reactivity. This cross-reactivity is a type II hypersensitivity reaction and is termed molecular mimicry.

Can rheumatic fever cause heart problems?

Serious Complications Include Long-term Heart Damage If rheumatic fever is not treated promptly, long-term heart damage (called rheumatic heart disease) may occur. Rheumatic heart disease weakens the valves between the chambers of the heart. Severe rheumatic heart disease can require heart surgery and result in death.

What valve does rheumatic fever affect?

Although rheumatic fever can affect any heart valve, it most commonly affects the mitral valve which lies between the two chambers of the left side of the heart. The damage can cause valve stenosis, valve regurgitation and/or damage to the heart muscle.

How long does rheumatic fever last?

Rheumatic fever can last from 6 weeks to more than 6 months. Your long-term health depends on how your heart has been affected by the disease.

What is the treatment of rheumatic heart disease?

In severe cases, treatment may include surgery to replace or repair a badly damaged valve. The best treatment is to prevent rheumatic fever. Antibiotics can usually treat strep infections and keep rheumatic fever from developing.

Can rheumatic fever cause arthritis later in life?

The nodules rarely last for more than a month. However, the associated arthritis may last for some time. Heart inflammation (carditis), chorea and arthritis are complications of rheumatic fever that can occur singly or in combination.

Who is at risk for rheumatic fever?

Who is at risk for rheumatic fever? Fewer than 0.3% of people who have strep throat also get rheumatic fever. Rheumatic fever is most common among children aged 5 to 15, but adults may have the condition as well. Doctors think that a weakened immune system may make some people more likely to get rheumatic fever.

How was rheumatic fever treated in the 1940’s?

The introduction of antibiotics (sulphonamides and then penicillin in the 1940s) and the trials conducted during the 1940s and in the USA, demonstrated that penicillin treatment for streptococcal pharyngitis has a preventive effect against rheumatic fever.

Which type of inflammation is most characteristic of acute rheumatic fever?

Rheumatic carditis Active inflammation of the heart tissues, most importantly the mitral and/or the aortic valves, caused by acute rheumatic fever. Rheumatic carditis can lead to chronic damage that remains after the acute inflammatory episode has resolved.

What are the effects of rheumatic heart disease?

Complications include heart failure, which means the heart is unable to pump blood effectively. The strain causes the heart to enlarge. Other complications of RHD include infection of damaged heart valves (infective endocarditis) and stroke due to clots forming in the enlarged heart or on damaged valves.

What is the most common complication of rheumatic fever?

The most serious complication of rheumatic fever is rheumatic heart disease (RHD). RHD is the most common cause of heart problems in children worldwide and can lead to damage to the heart valves and chronic heart failure.

How long can you live with rheumatic heart disease?

The relative survival was 96.9% (95% CI 96.1–97.5%) at one year and 81.2% (95% CI 79.2–83.0%) at five years (S3 Fig). The risk of death among RHD/ARF patients increased with age over and above background rates; there was also increased risk for both male and iTaukei patients (S4 Table).

What happens if rheumatic heart disease is left untreated?

If left untreated, rheumatic heart disease can lead to heart valve damage, stroke, heart failure, and death.